beamline practicals

List of Beamline Practicals

We have 22 laboratory courses (beamline practicals) using SPring-8 facilities.
Please note that the number of students for each course is limited and not all requests can be met.
In addition, your preferred Beamline practicals may have been changed due to cancellation caused by the Beamline mechanical problems.
*It is recommended to wear proper shoes and shirt with sleeves during the beamline practice. Sandals or high-heeled shoes are not appropriate.


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Theme: in-situ XAFS Measurement of Catalyst Samples
Tomoya Uruga, Kazuo Kato, Kiyofumi Nitta (JASRI/SPring-8) and Paul Fons (AIST & JASRI/SPring-8)
The bending magnet beamline, BL01B1, is used for various applications of XAFS over a wide energy range from 3.8 to 113 keV. In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure XAFS spectra, which covers alignment of X-ray optics and sample position. We will also demonstrate in-situ time-resolved quick scanning XAFS measurement of catalyst samples under reaction condition.


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Theme: In situ Observation of High-Pressure Phase Change of Simple Material
Yuji Higo (JASRI/SPring-8)
The BL04B1 beamline is designed for conducting researches on the structures and physical properties under high-pressure. In this course, we will observe the high-pressure phase change of KCl using a large-volume multianvil device and an energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction technique. KCl is a well-known crystal which is reversibly-transformed from B1 to B2 phase with pressure. In the practice, precise phase boundary and lattice constants of KCl are determined from in situ X-ray diffraction analysis.


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Theme: Structure of High-Temperature Levitated Liquids Probed by High-Energy X-ray Diffraction – Relationship between Liquid Structure and Glass Forming Ability
Shinji Kohara (JASRI/SPring-8)
High-brilliance and high-energy X-rays are one of the greatest advantages of SPring-8. The use of high-energy X-rays allows us to measure diffraction patterns up to high values of the momentum transfer in reciprocal space in transmission geometry, using small scattering angles and small correction terms. This fortunate combination provides more detailed and reliable structural information of not only disordered materials (glasses, liquids and amorphous materials) but also nanoparticles and mesoporous materials. The use of the levitation technique allows us to achieve deeply supercooled states, because there is no interface between the liquid and a container wall. Hence we can obtain new metastable materials (glasses) from the supercooled levitated liquid. In this course, we will try to levitate an oxide melt at a temperature beyond 2,000 ˚C by using a conical nozzle levitator. We are able to learn how we can obtain reliable diffraction data and how we analyze the data. Furthermore we will perform structure modelling of disordered materials on the basis of diffraction data employing a computer simulation technique, in order to understand the relationship between the structure of a liquid and its glass forming ability.
reference 1) RMC tutorial PDF icon 924KB 2) User's Manual (PDFgetX)PDF icon 359KB 3) Xcoeff_newPDF icon (47.8KB)


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Theme: Undulator Radiation and its Application to Beam Diagnostics
Mitsuhiro Masaki and Shiro Takano (JASRI/SPring-8)
The spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of undulator radiations reflect the transversal and longitudinal properties of stored electron beam in the storage ring. To study basic characteristics of undulator radiations, we will provide an opportunity to measure their spectral fluxes and spatial profiles. As an example of applications to beam diagnostics, this laboratory course will include a measurement of a small vertical electron beam size at a source point of an insertion device by observing an X-ray Fresnel diffraction image of a single slit.


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Theme: Spin Moment Determination of Ferromagnetic Materials using Magnetic Compton Scattering
Masayoshi Ito and Yoshiharu Sakurai (JASRI/SPring-8)
Magnetic Compton scattering is one of the synchrotron-radiation-based techniques to measure the spin moment of ferro- or ferromagnetic materials. The training begins with a brief introduction to magnetic Compton scattering and its techniques, followed by on-the-job trainings for spectrometer calibration, sample setting and data acquisition, with a ferromagnetic Fe reference-sample and a ferromagnetic compound. If you carry a well-characterized bulk-sample, we will consider its preliminary measurement on your request in advance.


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Theme: Probing Atomic Vibration using Nuclear Resonant Inelastic Scattering
Yoshitaka Yoda (JASRI/SPring-8)
Quantized vibrational motion is called a phonon, which is investigated by several spectroscopic methods such as Raman spectroscopy, inelastic X-ray scattering and neutron scattering. Its typical energy range is ~100 meV. Nuclear resonant scattering (NRS) is caused by a nuclear level, which has ~neV energy width. Every isotope has different nuclear level, so NRS has distinguished feature of just probing a specific isotope. Recently biochemical materials such as an enzyme have been intensively studied by NRS to focus on its active center in the complicated system. In the beamline practical, we will introduce a high-resolution monochromator and a fast timing detector, which have crucial roles to realize this spectroscopy at synchrotron radiation and a model sample will be measured in the cryostat.


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Theme: High Pressure X-ray Diffraction Measurement in a Diamond Anvil Cell
Yasuo Ohishi (JASRI/SPring-8)
The undulator beamline BL10XU is dedicated for X-ray diffraction experiments at high pressure and low/high temperature using diamond anvil cells (DACs). The high-resolution monochromatic angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction patterns obtained at BL10XU allow us to accurate structural analysis in crystals submitted to extreme pressures. To have a better understanding of high-pressure research using a combination of synchrotron radiation and a DAC technique through this BL practice course, in situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments will be carried out.


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Theme: X-ray Raman Scattering : Soft X-ray Spectroscopy using Hard X-rays
Nozomu Hiraoka (NSRRC, SPring-8)
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in the soft-x-ray region, e.g., at K-edges in light elements, L/M-edges in transition metals, or M/N edge in rare-earth elements, includes interesting and useful information. However, the experiments become cumbersome if one attempts to measure gas/liquid phases, dirty samples, or samples under extreme condition such as high pressure. Inelastic x-ray scattering, so-called x-ray Raman scattering, overcomes the problem: Edge features are recorded as an energy difference between incident and scattered photons, both of which can have high energy. We will measure carbon K-edge (about 290 eV) in diamond, graphite, and C60 fullerene using 10-keV hard x-rays in the course.


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Theme: In-situ XAFS Measurement of Catalyst Samples
Hironori Ofuchi, Masafumi Takagaki and Tetsuo Honma (JASRI/SPring-8)
The bending magnet beamline, BL14B2, is used for various applications of XAFS over a wide energy range from 3.8 to 72 keV. In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure XAFS spectra, which covers alignment of X-ray optics and sample position. We will also demonstrate in-situ time-resolved quick scanning XAFS measurement of catalyst samples under reaction condition.


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Theme: Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of Solution under Atmospheric Pressure
Takashi Tokushima and Yuka Horikawa (RIKEN/SPring-8)
Since electronic state of molecules governs properties and chemical reactions, investigation of electronic state is an important field of chemical physics. At the soft x-ray beamline BL17SU, the liquid flow cell using an ultra-thin window (thickness = 150nm) and a high performance spectrometer have been developed for spectroscopic studies of liquids and solutions under ambient condition (i.e. atmospheric pressure). In the course, the participants will experience x-ray emission measurements and x-ray absorption measurements using total photon yield of the solution samples. Both of these methods are the kinds of photon-in photon-out experiment, and are the power full method applicable to investigations of the electronic structure of diverse systems including insulators, liquids and solution.


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Theme: Real-time Observation of Photoinduced Valence-transitions in Mixed-valence Compounds by Means of Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Masaki Oura and Ashish Chainani (RIKEN/SPring-8)
It is well known that hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is one of the most powerful methods to investigate the bulk electronic structure of condensed matter. In order to extend its capability for studying transient electronic states in the time-scale from femtosecond to subnanosecond regimes, we have been developing a time-resolved HAXPES system at the ultrashort high-brilliance x-ray sources, such as the 27m-long undulator beamline BL19LXU of SPring-8 and the x-ray free electron laser facility SACLA.
In the practical course, participants will learn the principle of HAXPES and measure the core-level photoelectron as well as Auger electron spectra of target material. Furthermore, with the use of femtosecond optical laser, we will try to perform the real-time observation of photoinduced valence-transitions in mixed-valence compounds by HAXPES. Participants will learn how we can realize time-resolved HAXPES to study the ultrafast dynamics of electronic structure in condensed matter.


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Theme: X-ray Powder Diffraction Experiment
Keiichi Osaka (JASRI/SPring-8)
X-ray powder diffraction technique is powerful tool for structural analysis of various materials. Utilization of synchrotron radiation to this technique ensures the efficient experiment for the researcher of new functional material because it realize high speed measurement and high quality data. In this practical training course, we plan to let you experience the measurement and the analysis of X-ray powder diffraction from reference samples using Debye-Scherrer camera with automatic sample changer at BL19B2. This course's purpose is to let XRD beginners know what kind of information about materials can be obtained from X-ray powder diffraction.


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Theme: Detector Evaluation for Micro-Tomography Experiments at BL20B2
Kentaro Uesugi and Masato Hoshino (JASRI/SPring-8)
Micro-tomography experiments are carried out at many synchrotron radiation facilities in the world. X-ray image detector is one of a key device for those experiments. In the practice, we will start from evaluating of the characteristics of image detector for tomography. Some examples of absorption based micro-tomography will be shown as a demonstration.


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Theme: Protein Structure Determination using the S-SAD Method
Kazuya Hasegawa, Seiki Baba and Go Ueno (JASRI/SPring-8)
Sulfur SAD (S-SAD) phasing has been got attention because it does not need heavy atom derivative and is expected to improve the throughput of structure determination. However, accurate measurement of diffraction intensity is crucial for the success of S-SAD because of the small anomalous signal of sulfur atom. In this exercise, participants will collect diffraction data from a protein crystal and determine the structure by using S-SAD phasing.


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Theme: Soft X-ray Photoabsorption Spectroscopy
Yusuke Tamenori (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL27SU is used for x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) applications in the soft X-ray region (0.17-3.4 keV). In the practical training course, the participants will learn how to measure soft X-ray XAS spectrum. The participants will gain experience in sample preparation, sample alignment inside a vacuum chamber, and data acquisition. XAS spectra will be measured by means of the electron yield method and the fluorescence yield method using a Silicon-drift-detector.


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Theme:X-ray Fluorescence Analysis using Microfocusing Optics
Yasuko Terada (JASRI/SPring-8)
Phonons and phonon dispersion are unusual subjects to investigate at a synchrotron radiation source as there are only a few instruments in the world capable of such studies. However, the field is rapidly expanding as there is an increasing interest in such studies both intrinsically to investigate atomic dynamics, and considering phonons as one component of complex correlated system. This course will introduce the students to phonons and phonon measurements using meV-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering. We will investigate the coupling between the magnetic structure and lattice excitations in an antiferromagnet.


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Theme: Handling of X-ray Polarization and Application to X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy
Motohiro Suzuki, Naomi Kawamura and Masaichiro Mizumaki (JASRI/SPring-8)
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is X-ray absorption spectroscopy using circularly polarized X-rays. This is a powerful technique to investigate magnetic materials, providing element specificity, electronic-shell selectivity, and angular-momentum sensitivity. XMCD experiments in the hard X-ray region (>4 keV) require no ultra-high vacuum condition and are particularly useful to study magnetism under multiple extreme conditions (high magnetic field, low temperature, and high pressure). In the practice, you will learn how to tune several devices at the beamline, the undulator, double-crystal monochromator, and X-ray phase plate, to generate a circularly polarized X-ray beam. You will take some XMCD data by static and polarization-modulation techniques to know that how the modulation technique is useful for improving the data quality. A practice of the sum-rule analysis to determine the magnetic moments from the measured XMCD spectra will be performed.


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Theme: Microbeam Small-Angle X-ray Diffraction of Hair
Noboru Ohta (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL40XU is a high-flux beamline. Microbeam small-angle x-ray diffraction is one of the applications of high-flux x-ray available at BL40XU. We plan to provide training on adjustment of pinhole optics, data collection and analysis using hair as an experimental sample.


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Theme: Small-Angle Scattering Experiments
Naoto Yagi and Hiroshi Sekiguchi (JASRI/SPring-8)
Small-angle scattering/diffraction experiments require sophisticated optics (monochromator, focusing mirror, slits) and a detector system. Examples at small-angle beamlines (BL40B2 and BL40XU) will be explained. As a typical application, a protein solution scattering experiment will be conducted at BL40B2 with some instructions on the data analysis. Instrumentation for time-resolved experiments is also explained.


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Theme: Microspectroscopy using Infrared Synchrotron Radiation
Taro Moriwaki (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL43IR provides infrared radiation of high brilliance from a large bending radius (39.3 m) bending magnet. The beamline is therefore suitable for the microspectroscopy applications at the diffraction limit scale of approximately 10-100 micrometer depending on the wavelength. We plan to provide an opportunity to use the infrared microscope at the beamline of the practical training on adjustment of the optics, sample preparation (human hair cross-sectioning), adjustment of the microscope and measurements (two-dimensional mapping of the hair sample).


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Theme: Atomic Vibrations (Phonons) in a Simple Perovskite via Inelastic X-Ray Scattering
Alfred Baron and Hiroshi Uchiyama (RIKEN/SPring-8)
The perovskite structure can be considered one beginning of complexity in materials science. The cubic perovskite structure is a simple one, chemical formula ABO3, with oxygen atoms on the faces of a cube, the "B" atom in the center and the "A" atom on the vertices. However, it is inherently unstable. For a binary cubic compound (such as NaCl) the lattice constant can be taken to be the sum of the atomic radii and one often has a viable structure. However, for a ternary compound, one must either be very fortunate to have the three effective atomic sizes in the correct ratio to make a cube, or, more often, the crystal distorts, slightly, to a lower symmetry, and lower energy, structure. The slight distortions open the door to a range of complex and useful properties: one finds the perovskite structure in piezoelectrics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics - and then in nearly every technological field. This tendency of perovskites to distort is often reflected in the microscopic motion of the atoms, and can be inferred from observing the vibrational normal modes, or phonons. In this practical, we will use x-ray scattering to investigate these atomic motions.
X-rays are now emerging as a uniquely powerful probe of atomic dynamics in materials. The small, ~ 0.001 eV, energy scale of atomic motions, as compared to the, typical, ~10,000 eV energy of hard x-rays, means that building a sufficiently high-resolution x-ray spectrometer is a huge task. However, when completed, the advantages of the x-ray source and the method, make such a spectrometer an invaluable and highly sought-after tool. The practical will thus include first an introduction to the optics and optical concepts needed for such a spectrometer and then focus on measuring phonons in a relatively simpler perovskite.


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Theme: Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Satoshi Yasuno and Hiroshi Oji (JASRI/SPring-8)
Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful tool for observation of the distributions of chemical states from surface to bulk (several tens of nanometer). BL46XU is just a beamline used for this purpose and dedicated for industrial applications, which equipped with an undulator light source, double-crystal and channel-cut monochromators as well as a hemispherical type electron energy analyzer. The aim of this course is to learn the principle of HAXPES and gain experience of measuring photoelectron spectra of various materials with 8 keV monochromated X-ray.


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Theme: Making of Micro/Nano-beam with Fresnel Zone Plate Optics
Yoshio Suzuki (JASRI/SPring-8)
The Fresnel zone plate (FZP) is a focusing/image-forming optics widely used in the x-ray region. The FZP for x-rays is fabricated by recent nano-technology, and a few tens nm spatial resolution has been achieved using FZP optics and the third generation synchrotron radiation light sources. Unlike the conventional optical lens, the FZP is somewhat complicated optics. In the course, we will study, what is the characteristics of FZP, how the FZP works, how to make microprobe with FZP, and how to measure the probe size, etc, for deep understanding of x-ray fucusing/imaging optics. A demonstration of scanning microscopy is also planned.

Details of each beamline can be fond at Beamline List on the SPring-8 Webiste.]